Today there has been an explosion of media interest in the claim by Craig Wright that he is the identity behind the pseudonymous creator of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto. However, his blog post is rather suspicious, as it contains various misconceptions that one would not expect from an expert in the field, let alone the originator of Bitcoin.
“A process known as combinatorics”
Several paragraphs into the post, he begins discussing technical details and making various errors:
Wright writes:The SHA256 algorithm provides for a maximum message size of 2^128 – 1 bits of information whilst returning 32 bytes or 256 bits as an output value.
No, the SHA-256 algorithm only supports inputs of length up to . Specifically, there is a preprocessing stage where extra bits are appended to the end of the input as follows:
- Input data (n bits)
- Padding (512 – (n+64 mod 512) bits)
- Binary representation of n (64 bits)
This ensures that the prepared input has a length divisible by 512, which is necessary for the mixing algorithm which operates on blocks of 512 bits.
Anyway, this error is just about excusable since it pertains to the obscured internal details of an algorithm which people often use simply as a ‘black box’ for generating cryptographically secure message digests. The next sentence was much more concerning, since it suggests a serious mathematical misconception:
Wright writes:The number of possible messages that can be input into the SHA256 hash function totals (2^128 – 1)! possible input values ranging in size from 0 bits through to the maximal acceptable range that we noted above.
This does not even remotely resemble the correct number of possible inputs, which is . The use of a factorial to count the number of binary strings should immediately trigger alarm bells in anyone with a rudimentary undergraduate-level understanding of discrete mathematics.
This is followed by the rather amusing deviation:
Wright writes:In determining the possible range of collisions that would be available on average, we have a binomial coefficient (n choose k) that determines the permutations through a process known as combinatorics .
The reference is to a paper by Lovasz, a great mathematician who would be either amused or offended to hear the field of combinatorics described as ‘ a process ‘. Moreover, binomial coefficients count subsets, rather than ‘determine permutations’, and most professional cryptanalysts would struggle to decipher the phrase ‘possible range of collisions that would be available on average’.
N i tpicking the code
In one of the images on Craig Wright’s blog post, there is a screenshot of Notepad displaying a putative shell script for verifying an ECDSA signature. With the comments removed, the code reads as follows:
filename=$1 signature=$2 publickey=$3 if [[ $# -lt 3 ]] ; then echo "Usage: verify <file> <signature> <public_key>" exit 1 fi base64 --decode $signiture > /tmp/$filename.sig openssl dgst --verify $publickey -signature /tmp/$filename.sig $filename rm /tmp/$filename.sig
Note that the antepenultimate line says ‘signiture’ instead of ‘signature’, so the script doesn’t do what is claimed. In particular, it reads the signature from the environment variable ‘signiture’ rather than from the command-line argument. Hence, if you populate the environment variable with your own public-key, rather than Satoshi’s, you can cause the test to pass!
Whether this was indeed a malicious trick to convince spectators (or economists , as the case may be) or simply an innocent typo is unclear. But in the latter case, the script clearly was never tested; otherwise, the error would have been quickly detected. Either way, this seems somewhat suspicious.
“I’m Satoshi, and so’s my wife”
This is by no means the first time someone has claimed to be Satoshi. However, on this occasion there is the added caveat that two well-known Bitcoin developers, Jon Matonis and Gavin Andresen, purport that Wright is indeed right. This rules out the possibility that Wright is merely trying to seek attention, and instead suggests the following dichotomy:
- Matonis and Andresen genuinely believe that Satoshi is Wright.
- The triumvirate have ulterior motives for perpetuating a ruse.
Several explanations for (2) have been proposed. In particular, there is a rift amongst the Bitcoin developers between the ‘big-blockians’ and the ‘little-blockians’ (to parody Jonathan Swift), which I shall attempt to summarise here. Firstly, note that block size is essentially a measure of how many transactions can be handled in a 10-minute interval.
The little-blockians want the block sizes of Bitcoin to remain small, and thus for it to be a pure decentralised currency that can be used by anyone with a computer. This would maintain it as a peer-to-peer currency, but would limit its growth.
By comparison, the big-blockians believe Bitcoin should grow into a universal currency, expanding the block size to accommodate absolutely every transaction. The downside is that this is beyond the computational limits of domestic machines, thereby meaning that Bitcoin could only be regulated by banks, governments, and other large organisations: thereby moving it away from a libertarian idyll into something more akin to a regular currency.
Matonis, Andresen and Wright are all big-blockians. Having the esteemed creator Satoshi on their side would help their argument, and it is entirely plausible that there are several large organisations who would benefit from having more control over the regulation of Bitcoin.
Whether these motives are indeed the case, rather than mere speculation, will require further evidence. But as the evidence stands, I would not like to bet any money, cryptographic or otherwise, on the validity of Wright’s claim…