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从零开始的Android新项目2 – Gradle篇

相信大家的项目用上gradle都已经很久了,但用得如何呢?这里分享一下我的gradle脚本,大部分都是去年6月左右就开始用上的,有一部分比如签名的安全保存则是最近才自己动手,做了令自己觉得还不错的方案。

module类型的区分

科普小结,可能有些同学不太明白Java library module和Android library module是怎么区分的,其实就是个plugin的区别,在module的build.gradle中:

Android application module:

apply plugin: 'com.android.application'

Android library module:

apply plugin: 'com.android.library'

Java library module:

apply plugin: 'java'

版本号管理

如果只有一个application module还好,如果我们有多个module怎么办呢?每次改版本号累不累?

解决方案就是在root里申明全局变量,可以在单独的gradle里(比如新建一个dependency.gradle)申明然后apply from引用进来,或者直接定义在root的build.gradle中。

project.ext {
applicationId = "com.xxx"
buildToolsVersion = "23.0.2"
compileSdkVersion = 23
minSdkVersion = 14
targetSdkVersion = 23
versionCode = 1
versionName = "1.0.0"
abortOnLintError = false
checkLintRelease = false
useJack = false
abortOnLintError = false

javaVersion = JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
...
}

在子module里面则使用rootProject.ext去进行引用:

android {
compileSdkVersion rootProject.ext.compileSdkVersion
buildToolsVersion rootProject.ext.buildToolsVersion

defaultConfig {
applicationId rootProject.ext.applicationId
minSdkVersion rootProject.ext.minSdkVersion
targetSdkVersion rootProject.ext.targetSdkVersion
versionCode rootProject.ext.versionCode
versionName rootProject.ext.versionName
multiDexEnabled true
}

compileOptions {
sourceCompatibility rootProject.ext.javaVersion
sourceCompatibility rootProject.ext.javaVersion
}

packagingOptions {
exclude 'LICENSE.txt'
exclude 'META-INF/DEPENDENCIES'
exclude 'META-INF/ASL2.0'
exclude 'META-INF/NOTICE'
exclude 'META-INF/LICENSE'
}

lintOptions {
abortOnError rootProject.ext.abortOnLintError
checkReleaseBuilds rootProject.ext.checkLintRelease
quiet true
ignoreWarnings true
// Some libraries have issues with this.
disable 'InvalidPackage'
// Lint gives this warning but SDK 20 would be Android L Beta.
disable 'OldTargetApi'
}
...
}

依赖管理

那么多第三方库的引用,在多个module里引用,修改起版本号来好辛苦,万一有一个漏改了(比如gson)结果导致了异常行为,搞不好查原因查个半天,结果摔键盘竟然是版本号导致的。

so,和上节类似,我们需要统一定义依赖:

def daggerVersion = "2.0.2"
def retrofitVersion = "2.0.0-beta4"
def supportVersion = "23.2.1"
def rxBindingVersion = '0.4.0'

def leakCanaryVersion = "1.3.1"
def blockCanaryVersion = '1.1.4'

project.ext {
...
libSupportAppcompat = "com.android.support:appcompat-v7:${supportVersion}"
libSupportDesign = "com.android.support:design:${supportVersion}"
libSupportRecyclerview = "com.android.support:recyclerview-v7:${supportVersion}"
libSupportV4 = "com.android.support:support-v4:${supportVersion}"

libRxAndroid = "io.reactivex:rxandroid:1.1.0"
libRxJava = "io.reactivex:rxjava:1.1.1"
libEventBus = "org.greenrobot:eventbus:3.0.0"
libJavaxAnnotation = "javax.annotation:jsr250-api:1.0"

libGson = "com.google.code.gson:gson:2.4"
libRetrofit = "com.squareup.retrofit2:retrofit:${retrofitVersion}"
libRetrofitConverterGson = "com.squareup.retrofit2:converter-gson:${retrofitVersion}"
libRetrofitAdapterRxJava = "com.squareup.retrofit2:adapter-rxjava:${retrofitVersion}"
libOkHttpLoggingInterceptor = "com.squareup.okhttp3:logging-interceptor:3.0.0-RC1"

libDagger = "com.google.dagger:dagger:${daggerVersion}"
libDaggerCompiler = "com.google.dagger:dagger-compiler:${daggerVersion}"

libGlide = "com.github.bumptech.glide:glide:3.7.0"

libRxBinding = "com.jakewharton.rxbinding:rxbinding:${rxBindingVersion}"
libRxBindingSupportV4 = "com.jakewharton.rxbinding:rxbinding-support-v4:${rxBindingVersion}"
libRxBindingAppcompatV7 = "com.jakewharton.rxbinding:rxbinding-appcompat-v7:${rxBindingVersion}"
libRxBindingDesign = "com.jakewharton.rxbinding:rxbinding-design:${rxBindingVersion}"
libRxBindingRecyclerview = "com.jakewharton.rxbinding:rxbinding-recyclerview-v7:${rxBindingVersion}"

libRealm = "io.realm:realm-android:0.87.5"

debugDependencies = [
leakCanary: "com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android:${leakCanaryVersion}",
blockcanary: "com.github.moduth:blockcanary-ui:${blockCanaryVersion}",
]

releaseDependencies = [
leakCanary: "com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android-no-op:${leakCanaryVersion}",
blockcanary: "com.github.moduth:blockcanary-no-op:${blockCanaryVersion}",
]
}

这里也可以根据个人喜好把版本号也全都抽出去,我个人的实践原则是除非引用超出1处,否则还是定义在一起。

module中使用:

dependencies {
compile fileTree(include: ['*.jar'], dir: 'libs')
...
apt rootProject.ext.libDaggerCompiler
compile rootProject.ext.libDagger
compile rootProject.ext.libRxJava
compile rootProject.ext.libRxAndroid
compile rootProject.ext.libRxBinding
compile rootProject.ext.libGlide
provided rootProject.ext.libJavaxAnnotation
compile rootProject.ext.libSupportAppcompat
compile rootProject.ext.libSupportDesign
compile rootProject.ext.libSupportRecyclerview
compile rootProject.ext.libSupportV4
debugCompile rootProject.ext.debugDependencies.leakCanary
releaseCompile rootProject.ext.releaseDependencies.leakCanary
debugCompile rootProject.ext.debugDependencies.blockCanary
releaseCompile rootProject.ext.releaseDependencies.blockCanary
}

这里我还特地为一些debug和release compile不同包的定义了2个map,见leakCanary和blockCanary引用。

签名管理

签名是一个很敏感的东西,只要有了签名文件和对应的密码信息,就能轻易反编译修改源码然后再签名进行发布,因此如何保存这些敏感信息是很重要的。

在我的个人实践中,主要做了这么几点:

local.properties定义keystore信息文件路径:

keystore.props.file=../keystore.properties

keystore.properties保存keystore信息:

store=../buildsystem/release.jks
alias=xxx
storePass=xxx
pass=xxx

buildsystem下保存了:

$ ls
ci.gradle
debug.keystore
release.jks

application module的signingConfigs:

signingConfigs {

def Properties localProps = new Properties()
localProps.load(new FileInputStream(file('../local.properties')))
def Properties keyProps = new Properties()

// 如果读取不到'keystore.props.file'属性,就使用debug keystore

if (localProps['keystore.props.file']) {
keyProps.load(new FileInputStream(file(localProps['keystore.props.file'])))
} else {
keyProps["store"] = '../buildsystem/debug.keystore'
keyProps["alias"] = 'android'
keyProps["storePass"] = 'androiddebugkey'
keyProps["pass"] = 'android'
}

debug {
storeFile file(keyProps["store"])
keyAlias keyProps["alias"]
storePassword keyProps["storePass"]
keyPassword keyProps["pass"]
}

release {
// release版本使用assert确保存在该属性否则报错,避免错误打包
assert localProps['keystore.props.file'];
storeFile file(keyProps["store"])
keyAlias keyProps["alias"]
storePassword keyProps["storePass"]
keyPassword keyProps["pass"]
}
}

Java8支持

对Android的module

apply plugin: 'me.tatarka.retrolambda'

android {
compileOptions {
sourceCompatibility rootProject.ext.javaVersion
sourceCompatibility rootProject.ext.javaVersion
}
}

对Java的module:

sourceCompatibility = 1.8
targetCompatibility = 1.8

Split APK

详细的可以看看Google的官方文档 Apk Splits

我的使用:

splits {
abi {
enable true
reset()
include 'armeabi', 'x86' //, 'x86', 'armeabi-v7a', 'mips'
universalApk false
}
}

大致来说,就是可以根据脚本的配置,将apk以abi、density进行分包。再也不用为了缩小包的体积而专门去只留下一个arm的jni文件夹了,想怎么分怎么分,搞不定哪天就要传一个x86的包了,而且有的模拟器也只支持x86。

当然如果市场能支持这些配置,那就更好了,用户下载apk的流量就小多了。

Module AAR依赖

去你的module目录下, build/outputs/aar里面悄悄,是不是有aar文件?把它放到module目录下面,然后在build.gradle里面:

configurations.maybeCreate("default")
artifacts.add("default", file('lib_authorize-debug.aar'))

再把原来那些脚本给注释了,就搞定了。是不是特别简单?如果想再使用源码依赖,反注释一下就好了。兼顾了速度和灵活性。

总结

本篇主要讲了开发阶段gradle的各种实践,下一篇是什么暂时我也没有想法,哈哈。

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