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A-Z Bash Command Line for Linux

Bash (Bourne Again SHell) is aUnix shell and command language written by Brian Fox released in 1989. Bash command processor that typically runs in a text window, where the user types commands that cause actions. Bash can also read commands from a file, called a script. It has been distributed widely as the shell for the GNU operating system and as a default shell on Linux and OS X. Also recently  Microsoft announced during the 2016 Build Conference that Windows 10 has added a Linux subsystem that fully supports Bash and other Ubuntu binaries running natively in Windows.

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Features of Bash

Like the other GNU projects, the bash initiative was started to preserve, protect and promote the freedom to use, study, copy, modify and redistribute software. It is generally known that such conditions stimulate creativity. This was also the case with the bash program, which has a lot of extra features that other shells can’t offer.

Bash provides the following features:

  • Input/output redirection
  • Wildcard characters (metacharacters) for filename abbreviation
  • Shell variables for customizing your environment
  • Powerful programming capabilities
  • Command-line editing (using vi- or Emacs-style editing commands)
  • Access to previous commands (command history)
  • Integer arithmetic
  • Arithmetic expressions
  • Command name abbreviation (aliasing)
  • Job control
  • Integrated programming features
  • Control structures
  • Directory stacking (using pushd and popd)
  • Brace/tilde expansion
  • Key bindings

In this article we are going to list A-Z Bash command line for Linux. I think the below bash command line table will be helpful in your Linux journey.

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A-Z Bash Command Line

Bash Command Line Function
A
alias Create an alias
apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)
apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aspell Spell Checker
awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
B
basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames
bash GNU Bourne-Again SHell
bc Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg Send to background
break Exit from a loop
builtin Run a shell builtin
bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)
C
cal Display a calendar
case Conditionally perform a command
cat Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
cd Change Directory
cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp Change group ownership
chmod Change access permissions
chown Change file owner and group
chroot Run a command with a different root directory
chkconfig System services (runlevel)
cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear Clear terminal screen
cmp Compare two files
comm Compare two sorted files line by line
command Run a command – ignoring shell functions
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop
cp Copy one or more files to another location
cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
curl Transfer data from or to a server
cut Divide a file into several parts
D
date Display or change the date & time
dc Desk Calculator
dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
ddrescue Data recovery tool
declare Declare variables and give them attributes
df Display free disk space
diff Display the differences between two files
diff3 Show differences among three files
dig DNS lookup
dir Briefly list directory contents
dircolors Colour setup for ls'
dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs Display list of remembered directories
dmesg Print kernel & driver messages
du Estimate file space usage
E
echo Display message on screen
egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
eject Eject removable media
enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands
env Environment variables
ethtool Ethernet card settings
eval Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec Execute a command
exit Exit the shell
expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expand Convert tabs to spaces
export Set an environment variable
expr Evaluate expressions
F
false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
fg Send job to foreground
fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file Determine file type
find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt Reformat paragraph text
fold Wrap text to fit a specified width
for Expand words, and execute commands
format Format disks or tapes
free Display memory usage
fsck File system consistency check and repair
ftp File Transfer Protocol
function Define Function Macros
fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
G
gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts Parse positional parameters
grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groupadd Add a user security group
groupdel Delete a group
groupmod Modify a group
groups Print group names a user is in
gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)
H
hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument
head Output the first part of file(s)
help Display help for a built-in command
history Command History
hostname Print or set system name
htop Interactive process viewer
I
iconv Convert the character set of a file
id Print user and group id’s
if Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig Configure a network interface
ifdown Stop a network interface
ifup Start a network interface up
import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install Copy files and set attributes
ip Routing, devices and tunnels
J
jobs List active jobs
join Join lines on a common field
K
kill Kill a process by specifying its PID
killall Kill processes by name
L
less Display output one screen at a time
let Perform arithmetic on shell variables
link Create a link to a file
ln Create a symbolic link to a file
local Create variables
locate Find files
logname Print current login name
logout Exit a login shell
look Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc Line printer control program
lpr Off line print
lprint Print a file
lprintd Abort a print job
lprintq List the print queue
lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
ls List information about file(s)
lsof List open files
M
make Recompile a group of programs
man Help manual
mkdir Create new folder(s)
mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknod Make block or character special files
more Display output one screen at a time
most Browse or page through a text file
mount Mount a file system
mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
mv Move or rename files or directories
mmv Mass Move and rename (files)
N
nc Netcat, read and write data across networks
netstat Networking information
nice Set the priority of a command or job
nl Number lines and write files
nohup Run a command immune to hangups
notify-send Send desktop notifications
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively
O
open Open a file in its default application
op Operator access
P
passwd Modify a user password
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
pkill Kill processes by a full or partial name
popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current director
pv Monitor the progress of data through a pipe
pwd Print Working Directory
Q
quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usag
R
ram ram disk device
rar Archive files with compression
rcp Copy files between two machines
read Read a line from standard input
readarray Read from stdin into an array variable
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
reboot Reboot the system
rename Rename files
renice Alter priority of running processes
return Exit a shell function
rev Reverse lines of a file
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)
rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
S
screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input
seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp Secure File Transfer Program
shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep Delay for a specified time
slocate Find files
sort Sort text files
source Run commands from a file ‘.’
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
stat Display file or file system status
strace Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sudo Execute a command as another user
sum Print a checksum for a file
suspend Suspend execution of this shell
sync Synchronize data on disk with memory
T
tail Output the last part of file
tar Store, list or extract files in an archive
tee Redirect output to multiple files
test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
timeout Run a command with a time limit
times User and system times
touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
tput Set terminal-dependent capabilities, color, position
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully
tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command
U
ulimit Limit user resources
umask Users file creation mask
umount Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias
uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files
units Convert units from one scale to another
unrar Extract files from a rar archive
unset Remove variable or function names
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
until Execute commands (until error)
uptime Show uptime
useradd Create new user account
userdel Delete a user account
usermod Modify user account
users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode
V
v Verbosely list directory contents (ls -l -b’)
vdir Verbosely list directory contents ( ls -l -b')
vi Text Editor
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics
W
wait Wait for a process to complete
watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program
which Search the user’s $path for a program file
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (id -un’)
wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write Send a message to another user
X
xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application
xz Compress or decompress .xz and .lzma files
Y
yes Print a string until interrupted
Z
zip Package and compress (archive) files
Special Characters
. Run a command script in the current shell
!! Run the last command again
### Comment / Remark

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A-Z Bash Command Line for Linux

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