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Running Percona XtraDB Cluster in a multi-host Docker network

Running Percona XtraDB Cluster in a multi-host Docker network In this post, I’ll discuss how to run Percona XtraDB Cluster in a multi-host Docker network.

With our release of Percona XtraDB Cluster 5.7 beta , we’ve also decided to provide Docker images for both  Percona XtraDB Cluster 5.6 and  Percona XtraDB Cluster 5.7 .

Starting one node is very easy, and not that different from startingPercona Server image. The only an extra requirement is to have the CLUSTER_NAME variable defined. The startup command might look like this:

dockerrun -d -p 3306:3306   -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=Theistareyk   -e CLUSTER_NAME=Theistareykjarbunga   -e XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=Theistare  percona/percona-xtradb-cluster 

You might also notice we can optionally define an XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD password, which a  xtrabackup@localhost user will employ for the xtrabackup-SST method.

Running Percona XtraDB Cluster in single mode kind of defeats the purpose of having the cluster. With our docker images, we tried to resolve the following tasks:

  1. Run in multiple-host environment (followed by running in Docker Swarm and Kubernetes)
  2. Start as many nodes in the cluster as we want
  3. Register all nodes in the service discovery, so that the client can see how many nodes are running and their status
  4. Integrate with ProxySQL

Let’s review these points one by one.

Using a multi-host network is when a Docker network becomes helpful. The recent Docker versions come with a network overlay driver, which we will use to run a virtual network over multiple boxes. Starting Docker overlay network is out of scope for this post, but check out this great introduction material on how to get it working.

With the network running, we can create an overlay network for our cluster:

dockernetworkcreate -d overlay cluster1_net 

Then we can start containers:

dockerrun -d -p 3306 --net=cluster1_net   -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=Theistareyk   -e CLUSTER_NAME=cluster1   ...  -e XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=Theistare    percona/percona-xtradb-cluster 

The cool bit is that we can start Percona XtraDB Cluster on any node in the network, and they will communicate over the virtual network.

If you want to stay within a single Docker host (for example during testing), you still can create a bridge network and use it in one host environment.

The script above will run . . . almost. The problem is that every additional node needs to know the address of the running cluster.

To address this (if you prefer a manual process) we introduced the CLUSTER_JOIN variable, which should point to the IP address of one running nodes (or be empty to start the new cluster).

In this case, getting the script above to work might look like below:

dockerrun -d -p 3306 --net=cluster1_net   -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=Theistareyk   -e CLUSTER_NAME=cluster1   -e CLUSTER_JOIN=10.0.5.5   -e XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=Theistare  percona/percona-xtradb-cluster 

I think manually tracking IP addresses requires unnecessary extra work, especially if we want to start and stop nodes on the fly. So we also decided to use service discovery — especially since you need it to run the Docker overlay network overlay. Right now we support the etcd discovery service, but it isn’t a problem to add more (such as Consul).

Starting etcd is also out of the scope of this post, but you can read about the procedure in the manual .

When you run etcd service discovery (on the host 10.20.2.4:2379 , for example) you can start the nodes:

dockerrun -d -p 3306 --net=cluster1_net   -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=Theistareyk   -e CLUSTER_NAME=cluster1   -e DISCOVERY_SERVICE=10.20.2.4:2379   -e XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=Theistare  percona/percona-xtradb-cluster 

The node will register itself in the service discovery and will join existing $CLUSTER_NAME.

There is convenient way to check all nodes:

curlhttp://$ETCD_HOST/v2/keys/pxc-cluster/$CLUSTER_NAME/?recursive=true | jq {   "action": "get",   "node": {     "key": "/pxc-cluster/cluster4",     "dir": true,     "nodes": [       {         "key": "/pxc-cluster/cluster4/10.0.5.2",         "dir": true,         "nodes": [           {             "key": "/pxc-cluster/cluster4/10.0.5.2/ipaddr",             "value": "10.0.5.2",             "modifiedIndex": 19600,             "createdIndex": 19600           },           {             "key": "/pxc-cluster/cluster4/10.0.5.2/hostname",             "value": "2af0a75ce0cb",             "modifiedIndex": 19601,             "createdIndex": 19601           }         ],         "modifiedIndex": 19600,         "createdIndex": 19600       },       {         "key": "/pxc-cluster/cluster4/10.0.5.3",         "dir": true,         "nodes": [           {             "key": "/pxc-cluster/cluster4/10.0.5.3/ipaddr",             "value": "10.0.5.3",             "modifiedIndex": 26420,             "createdIndex": 26420           },           {             "key": "/pxc-cluster/cluster4/10.0.5.3/hostname",             "value": "cfb29833f1d6",             "modifiedIndex": 26421,             "createdIndex": 26421           }         ],         "modifiedIndex": 26420,         "createdIndex": 26420       }     ],     "modifiedIndex": 19600,     "createdIndex": 19600   } } 

With this, you can start as many cluster nodes as you want and on any host in Docker Network. Now it is convenient to use an SQL proxy in front of the cluster. In this case, we will use ProxySQL (I will show that in a follow-up post).

In later posts, we will also review how to run Percona XtraDB Cluster nodes in an orchestration environment (like Docker Swarm and Kubernetes).

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