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Daniel Cazzulino: Access Git Information from MSBuild and Code

Why use git information

Regardless of how you generate your version numbers, it’s quite useful to embed the git repository information in an assembly (and/or its version information), such as the branch and commit that generated it. It can be invaluable in troubleshooting issues with a shipped product, and are opaque enough that they don’t typically represent a secret you would care to hide. Logging code inside your app/library could also trace this information, so that error logs or crash reports could include this information too, further facilitating troubleshooting.

In addition, if you’re using GitFlow , GitHubFlow or some other variation, your branches or tags may also have additional meaning with regards to versioning, and thus may also be relevant information you might want to consume as assembly metadata or directly from code.

Retrieving and using the information

There is of course an infinite number of ways to do this, from powershell that generate text files with the info, to MSBuild targets that generate JSON files, continuous integration servers automatically patching files for you or manually updating a version specifier somewhere in your source tree and having a pre-build process patch everything locally.

In many cases I’ve seen in the wild, these are intended to be consumed from build scripts that patch AssemblyInfo.cs files automatically and that’s about it. Maybe expose some environment variable that you can consume in some way too from those build scripts. Others would provide format strings and customization hooks to tweak how the version numbers or assembly info is generated, requiring some learning on the way. I’ve done so myself too at some point with SemanticGit . In the case of GitVersion, it goes to the extreme of being awfully complicated .

I came to the conclusion that for .NET/MSBuild based projects, simple MSBuild properties populated automatically (such as $(GitBranch) , $(GitCommit) , $(GitSha) and the like) coupled with source code exposure of the values via generated constants, strikes the perfect balance of simplicity and flexibility.

Thus, GitInfo was born.

When you install the package in your project that lives in a git repo, you automatically get the following MSBuild properties, ready to be consumed by any target that depends on the provided GitInfo target:

  • $(GitRoot): the root directory (without trailing slash) of the git repository. It’s smart enough to also work for submodules, properly returning the containing repository root, not the submodule’s.
  • $(GitBranch): the branch being built
  • $(GitCommit): the short (7 chars) commit sha being built
  • $(GitSha): the full commit sha being built

That may be all the information you need if you’re not leveraging the commits for versioning information. If so, in addition to consuming this from MSBuild properties you can also consume it from from code (C# and VB projects only for now). For this, GitInfo leverages a fairly common pattern in the .NET framework, which is to create a class named ThisAssembly that holds these values as constants.

For projects with a supported language, GitInfo will generate a partial class named ThisAssembly in the intermediate output directory, like the following:

namespace Contoso {  /// <summary>Provides access to the current assembly information.</summary>  partial class ThisAssembly  {   /// <summary>Provides access to the git information for the current assembly.</summary>   public partial class Git   {   /// <summary>Branch: master</summary>   public const string Branch = "master";    /// <summary>Commit: 5335c2f</summary>   public const string Commit = "5335c2f";    /// <summary>Sha: 5335c2f914b56ddd3dab4c0c71b44aa0e070f059</summary>   public const string Sha = "5335c2f914b56ddd3dab4c0c71b44aa0e070f059";   ...  } } 

Notice how the generated values are also exposed as the member summary, so that from anywhere in your codebase, you can easily find out what the current values are by just hovering on any code consuming ThisAssembly.Git.Branch for example.

Once thing you don’t want is this fancy addition ruining your carefully tunned incremental builds, so I’ve been extremely vigilant of that aspect too. The targets have been carefully crafted with proper Inputs/Outputs and smart caching of the git information (you can peek at the GitInfo.cache file in the intermediate output directory) and refreshing it only when the current git HEAD changes (i.e. you create a new commit, switch branches, pull commits, create a tag, etc.).

Additionally, this information is (by default) exposed as assembly metadata too via AssemblyMetadataAttribute s which are new in .NET 4.5, as follows:

[assembly: System.Reflection.AssemblyMetadata("GitInfo.Branch", Contoso.ThisAssembly.Git.Branch)] [assembly: System.Reflection.AssemblyMetadata("GitInfo.Commit", Contoso.ThisAssembly.Git.Commit)] [assembly: System.Reflection.AssemblyMetadata("GitInfo.Sha", Contoso.ThisAssembly.Git.Sha)] 

Leveraging git information for product versioning

It’s quite common to derive a product version number from a branch or tag name plus the number of commits since the branch/tag was created, SemVer style, like GitVersion . The idea being that if the branch is named ‘v3.0.0’ and there have been 40 commits to it since it was branched, then the version number is ‘v3.0.40’. Pretty straightforward and very useful, since now you can locally build any branch and commit (or tag) and generate a fully equivalent product (including version!) from what a continuous integration server would generate. The same technique is usually applied to a version file in the repository root, which is updated after branching for a release (this is how most of us do it at Xamarin, for example).

Git can easily tell you how many commits you have made since you created a tag or branch or since you last commited to a particular file. This means that all the information to create an automatic version number based on the combination of a SemVer-named tag/branches (or a version file contents) plus commits on top of it them readily available. All we need to do is automate its extraction and expose that information to your code so you can build up whatever version numbers you wish.

Rather than providing MSBuild properties or scripts with format strings you have to learn in order to put together your version numbers, GitInfo simply exposes the determined version-related values via MSBuild and code constants (through ThisAssembly.Git.BaseVersion and ThisAssembly.Git.SemVer ) so you can freely build the version number you want by just concatenating the values yourself.

GitInfo exposes two version structures: * BaseVersion : this is the base version determined from the branch, tag or version file contents. It’s expected to be a SemVer-like format, and it’s exposed as its individual components Major , Minor and Patch , following SemVer naming conventions. * SemVer : this is the determined version obtained by adding the number of commits on top of the branch/tag/file, plus any pre-release labels specified in the base version (i.e. -pre , -beta ). It’s also exposed in its individual components Major , Minor and Patch but also adds Label (i.e. pre or beta ), DashLabel (i.e. -pre or -beta ) and Source (which can be Branch , Tag or File ). The DashLabel allows for easily composing a semver string regardless of whether there was a pre-release label or not, since it defaults to an empty string if no label was found.

In MSBuild, any target that depends on the provided GitVersion target can access the following properties for the above values:

  • $(GitBaseVersion)
  • $(GitBaseVersionSource)
  • $(GitBaseVersionMajor)
  • $(GitBaseVersionMinor)
  • $(GitBaseVersionPatch)
  • $(GitCommits)
  • $(GitTag)
  • $(GitBaseTag)
  • $(GitSemVerMajor)
  • $(GitSemVerMinor)
  • $(GitSemVerPatch)
  • $(GitSemVerLabel)
  • $(GitSemVerDashLabel)
  • $(GitSemVerSource)

The difference between GitTag and GitBaseTag is apparent in these two sample values from an actual repo:

  • GitTag: v0.2.63-145-g5335c2f
  • GitBaseTag: v0.2.63

Code like the following is emitted for the ThisAssembly partial class:

  partial class ThisAssembly   {     /// <summary>Provides access to the git information for the current assembly.</summary>     public partial class Git     {       /// <summary>Branch: master</summary>       public const string Branch = "master";        /// <summary>Commit: 5335c2f</summary>       public const string Commit = "5335c2f";        /// <summary>Sha: 5335c2f914b56ddd3dab4c0c71b44aa0e070f059</summary>       public const string Sha = "5335c2f914b56ddd3dab4c0c71b44aa0e070f059";        /// <summary>Commits on top of base version: 145</summary>       public const string Commits = "145";        /// <summary>Tag: v0.2.63-145-g5335c2f</summary>       public const string Tag = "v0.2.63-145-g5335c2f";        /// <summary>Base tag: v0.2.63</summary>       public const string BaseTag = "v0.2.63";        /// <summary>Provides access to the base version information used to determine the <see cref="SemVer" />.</summary>             public partial class BaseVersion       {         /// <summary>Major: 0</summary>         public const string Major = "0";          /// <summary>Minor: 2</summary>         public const string Minor = "2";          /// <summary>Patch: 63</summary>         public const string Patch = "63";       }        /// <summary>Provides access to SemVer information for the current assembly.</summary>       public partial class SemVer       {         /// <summary>Major: 0</summary>         public const string Major = "0";          /// <summary>Minor: 2</summary>         public const string Minor = "2";          /// <summary>Patch: 208</summary>         public const string Patch = "208";          /// <summary>Label: </summary>         public const string Label = "";          /// <summary>Label with dash prefix: </summary>         public const string DashLabel = "";          /// <summary>Source: Tag</summary>         public const string Source = "Tag";       }  }   } 

The generated ThisAssembly file is in the intermediate output directory in a file named ThisAssembly.GitInfo.g.cs (or .vb).

Note that GitInfo hasn’t generated a single [AssemblyVersion] attribute :). That is intentional! With the above information, you can trivially create one yourself, share it however you like (linked files, shared asset project, common targets imported from all your projects, etc.) among your projects. For example, in Xamarin for Visual Studio , we have a GlobalAssemblyInfo.cs like the following:

// AssemblyVersion = full version info, since it's used to determine agents versions [assembly: AssemblyVersion(Xamarin.ThisAssembly.Version)] // FileVersion = release-like simple version (i.e. 3.11.2 for cycle 5, SR2). [assembly: AssemblyFileVersion(Xamarin.ThisAssembly.SimpleVersion)] // InformationalVersion = full version + branch + commit sha. [assembly: AssemblyInformationalVersion(Xamarin.ThisAssembly.InformationalVersion)]  namespace Xamarin {  partial class ThisAssembly  {   /// <summary>   /// Simple release-like version number, like 4.0.1 for a cycle 5, SR1 build.   /// </summary>   public const string SimpleVersion = Git.BaseVersion.Major + "." + Git.BaseVersion.Minor + "." + Git.BaseVersion.Patch;    /// <summary>   /// Full version, including commits since base version file, like 4.0.1.598   /// </summary>   public const string Version = SimpleVersion + "." + Git.Commits;      /// <summary>   /// Full version, plus branch and commit short sha, like 4.0.1.598-cycle6+39cf84e   /// </summary>   public const string InformationalVersion = Version + "-" + Git.Branch + "+" + Git.Commit;     } } 

You can of course just use the values directly in the version attributes, rather than having separate constants, for simplicity:

[assembly: AssemblyVersion (ThisAssembly.Git.SemVer.Major + "." + ThisAssembly.Git.SemVer.Minor + "." + ThisAssembly.Git.SemVer.Patch)] [assembly: AssemblyInformationalVersion (  ThisAssembly.Git.SemVer.Major + "." +  ThisAssembly.Git.SemVer.Minor + "." +  ThisAssembly.Git.SemVer.Patch + "-" +  ThisAssembly.Git.Branch + "+" +  ThisAssembly.Git.Commit)] // i..e ^: 1.0.2-master+c218617 

Extending the generated ThisAssembly class with the formatted version strings is quite useful however, since you can avoid repeating that formatting across your codebase if you happen to consume it elsewhere, such as in logging.

Installation

Being a NuGet package, it’s trivial:

Install-Package GitInfo 

If a base version can’t be determined, a warning will be issued and the version values will default to 0.1.0 .

Customizations

Right after installation, a readme will open up showing the available customization points via MSBuild, copied here as of this writing:

  $(GitThisAssembly): set to 'false' to prevent assembly                        metadata and constants generation.    $(GitThisAssemblyMetadata): set to 'false' to prevent assembly                                metadata generation only. Defaults                                to 'false'.     $(ThisAssemblyNamespace): allows overriding the namespace                             for the ThisAssembly class.                             Defaults to the global namespace.               $(GitDefaultBranch): determines the base branch used to                         calculate commits on top of current branch.                        Defaults to 'master'.     $(GitVersionFile): determines the name of a file in the Git                       repository root used to provide the base                       version info.                      Defaults to 'GitInfo.txt'.               $(GitInfoReportImportance): allows rendering all the retrieved                               git information with the specified                               message importance ('high',                                'normal' or 'low').                               Defaults to 'low'.    $(GitIgnoreBranchVersion) and $(GitIgnoreTagVersion): determines                              whether the branch and tags (if any)                              will be used to find a base version.                             Defaults to empty value (no ignoring). 

I find $(GitInfoReportImportance) particularly useful in release builds:

<PropertyGroup>     <GitInfoReportImportance Condition="'$(Configuration)' == 'Release'">high</GitInfoReportImportance> </PropertyGroup> 

Which causes the following msbuild log entry:

GitInfoReport:   Git Info:     GitRoot:              C:/Code/Xamarin/XamarinVS     GitBranch:            master     GitCommit:            39cf84e     GitSha:               39cf84eb9027ca669c8aa6cb4fe5f238009d42ba     GitBaseVersion:       99.0.0     GitBaseVersionSource: C:/Code/Xamarin/XamarinVS/XamarinVS.Version     GitBaseVersionMajor:  99     GitBaseVersionMinor:  0     GitBaseVersionPatch:  0     GitCommits:           2611     GitTag:     GitBaseTag:     GitSemVerMajor:       99     GitSemVerMinor:       0     GitSemVerPatch:       2611     GitSemVerLabel:     GitSemVerDashLabel:     GitSemVerSource:      File 

This is nice especially if you just do it on the main build script for a project, which can of course also benefit from GitInfo even without being a regular project containing code: it just needs to import the targets and make its targets depend on GitInfoReport !

Happy MSBuilding!

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